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多元土壤修复技术路径 剑指我国土壤污染现状

【来源/作者】北纳生物 【更新日期】2019-05-13

<土壤>

土壤污染防治法填补了当前土壤污染防治立法层面的空白,也起到厘清环境责任、明确治污主体的作用。

WURANXIANZHUANG:FANWEIGUANGDA、FENGXIANQIANCUN、BURONGHUSHI

土壤污染对“米袋子”“菜篮子”“水缸子”是巨大威胁。2014年4月,环境保护部和国土资源部联合发布的《全国土壤污染调查公报》显示,全国土壤点位总超标率为16.1%。从污染分布情况看,南方土壤污染重于北方;长江三角洲、珠江三角洲、东北老工业基地等部分区域土壤污染问题较为突出,西南、中南地区土壤重金属超标范围较大。

“ZUIJINYICIQUANGUOFANWEIDETURANGWURANZHUANGKUANGDIAOCHAXIANSHI,QUANGUOTURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBURONGLEGUAN,GONGKUANGYE、NONGYEDENGRENWEIYINSUSHIZHUYIN。”ZHONGKEYUANNANJINGTURANGYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUANLUOYONGMINGJIESHAOSHUO,TURANGWURANBAOKUOZHONGJINSHUWURAN、YOUJIWUWURANDENG,WURANSHITURANGJIANGDIHUOSANGSHISHENGCHANLI,WEIJINONGCHANPIN、DIXIASHUIHERENJUHUANJINGANQUAN。

“YOUYUWOGUOGONGYEQIYEZAOQIGUANLIBUJUXITONGXING,DADUOSHUWURANCHANGDIDEYUNXINGJILUMEIYOUBEIAN,SHIDECHANGDIWURANSUYUAN、WURANFANWEIHECHENGDUMIAOSHUJIWURANWUDEQIANYIZHUANHUAGUILVFENXIDENGFEICHANGKUNNAN。”ZHONGKEYUANNANJINGTURANGYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUANSONGXINSHUO。

WEIFEITOUMAI、GONGKUANGKAIFAYEJIAJULEBUFENDIQUTURANGWURANQINGKUANG。2018NIANYILAI,JIANGSUSHENGTAIZHOU、YANCHENG、LIANYUNGANGDENGDUODIJIELIANPUCHUGUFEITOUMAI、FEIYETOUPAI、FEISHUICHULIBUGUIFANDENGHUANJINGWURANWENTI。YOUQIYEWEIPAIWUJUEDI30MIMAIANGUAN,YOUQIYEWEIQUDEHUANPINGSHOUXUJIUSHANGMA,ZHONGJINSHUWURANWUSUIYILUTIANDUIFANG……TONGJISHUJUXIANSHI,2018NIAN1-11YUE,JIANGSUQUANSHENGGONGYOU390MINGBEIGAORENYINHUANJINGWURANZUIBEIPANCHUYOUQITUXINGYISHANGXINGFA,PANCHUFAJINZONGEYU2000WANYUAN。

ZHONGGUOKEXUEYUAN“BAIRENJIHUA”YANJIUYUANCHENMENGFANGSHUO,DUIYUSHENCHUZHANGSANJIAODEJIANGSULAISHUO,JIAOHUA、DIANDU、YINRAN、NONGYAODENGHUAGONGQIYEDECHANGDITURANGWURANYUCHULISHIDANGQIANMIANLINDEZHUYAOWENTI。SUIZHECHENGSHIHUADEFAZHAN,BUFENHUAGONGQIYEBANQIANHOUCUNZAITURANGXIUFUXUYAO。

ERTURANGYIDANBEIWURAN,QIHOUGUOJIUFEICHANGYANZHONG。BUFENXINGYEZHUANJIABIAOSHI,TURANGWURANJUYOUYINBIXING、QIANFUXINGHEZHANGQIXINGDETEDIAN。TONGGUOSHIWULIANDECENGCENGCHUANDAO,DONGWUHERENLEIDEJIANKANGSHENSHOUTURANGWURANDEYINGXIANG,QIEZHEIYIGUOCHENGSHIFENWEIMIAO,BUYIBEICHAJUE。BINGQIETURANGWURANTONGSHIJUYOULEIJIXINGDETEDIAN,WURANWUZAITURANGZHONGBUYIQIANYI、KUOSAN、XISHI;SHENZHI,TURANGWURANJUYOUBUKENIXING,ZHONGJINSHUDUITURANGDEWURANJIBENSHANGSHIYIGEBUKENIZHUANDEGUOCHENG,XUDUOYOUJIHUAHEWUDEWURANYEXUYAOJIAOZHANGSHIJIANCAINENGJIANGJIE。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,TURANGWURANDEZHILICHENGBENHENGAO,JIANXIAODEGUOCHENGYEJIAOWEIHUANMAN。

XIUFUJISHU:LUJINGDUOYUAN、JINGZHUNZHILI、XITONGSIWEI

ZAISHOUWURANTURANGDEZHILIHEXIUFUJISHUFANGMIAN,MUQIANZAIWOGUOCHENGXIANCHULUJINGDUOYUANHUADETEDIAN。

“XINGYECHUQI,WURANTURANGJUEDADUOSHUCAIYONGSHUINIYAOXIETONGFENSHAOCHUZHIHUOANQUANTIANMAIDENGXIANGDUIJIANDANDEJISHUFANGSHICHULI。RUJIN,YINGYONGREJIEXI、TURANGLINXI、YUANWEIRETUOFU、YUANWEIHUAXUEYANGHUA、SHENGWUXIUFUDENGXIANJINJISHUYIJINGCHENGWEIZHULIU,ZHENGTISHUIPINGYUGUOWAITONGBU。”ZHONGGUOHUANJINGBAOHUCHANYEXIEHUITURANGYUDIXIASHUIXIUFUZHUANYEWEIYUANHUIMISHUZHANG、BEIJINGJIANGONGXIUFUGONGSIFUZONGJINGLILISHUPENGBIAOSHI,XIUFUJISHUDEDUOYUANHUAHEBUDUANJINBUWEIXIUFUGONGCHENGYINGYONGCHUANGXINTIGONGLEKENENG。

CIQIAN,YOUGUANBUMENCENGGONGBULEYIPIXIUFUTURANGDEJISHUZHUANGBEI“LIQI”。2017NIAN12YUE,KEJIBULIANHEQITAWUBUMENZUZHIBIANZHILE《TURANGWURANFANGZHIXIANJINJISHUZHUANGBEIMULU》,QIZHONGGONGBULEBAOKUOWURANTURANGYIWEILINXIXIUFUJISHU、SHENWURANTURANGWUGONGCAOXIUFUJISHU、YIWEIJIANJIERETUOFUJISHUZHUANGBEIZAINEIDE15ZHONGTURANGXIUFUJISHU(ZHUANGBEI)DEJISHULUXIAN、ZHUYAOZHIBIAOHESHIYONGFANWEI。

生物修复等技术是当前研究人员关注的一个前沿领域。“生物修复是目前比较好的土壤修复方式,包括种植超积累植物、接种微生物等方法。超积累植物如伴矿景天,可以快速将镉元素向地上部分运输,通过冬春修复,夏秋稻作的循环方式,植物修复后可将土壤中的重金属降低50%。”骆永明说,一些特殊的植物可以像“矿工”一样不断将重金属元素积累,我国目前的方式是对这些植物进行焚烧,而国外甚至还可以收集后提炼金属。

DANGQIAN,LIANGLEITURANGXIUFUJIWEIPOQIE,YILEISHIGONGKUANGQIYEBANQIANHOUDETURANG,LINGYILEISHINONGTIANTURANG。“MUQIANXUEJIEZHENGZAIZUODE,ZHENGSHIJIAQIANGDUIBUTONGXINGYE、BUTONGQUYUHEBUTONGWURANLEIXINGTURANGDEFENXI,TIGONGJINGZHUN、LVSE、KECHIXUDEXIUFUJISHU。”LISHUPENGSHUO,TURANGXIUFUJISHUDEDUOYUANHUA、JISHUFANGANDEJINGXIHUASHIWEILAIZHEIYILINGYUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG。

TURANGXIUFUBUYINGJINTINGLIUYUJISHUBENSHEN,GENGSHEJINONGYESHENGCHAN、ZIYUANZAILIYONGDENGYANSHENHUANJIE。“WOGUOZUIJINSHINIANZAITURANGZHILISHANG,CONGLILUNDAOJISHUZHUANGBEIDOUYOUZHANGZUFAZHAN,DANHEGUOWAIWURANZHILIJISHUHAIYOUCHAJU。XIANZAIBUJINYAOWEIZHILIERZHILI,GENGYAOKAOLVXITONGJIEJUEFANGAN,ZAIBAOZHENGLIANGSHIKEXUESHENGCHANDEJICHUSHANGCHUZHI,XUYAOGENGXINSILU。”ZHONGKEYUANNANJINGTURANGYANJIUSUOSUOZHANGSHENRENFANGSHUO。

ZERENZHUTI:YIFAZHIWU、SHEHUICANYU、XINGYEDAOXIANG

SHEISHITURANGWURANZHILIDEDIYIZERENREN?《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》DEZHENGSHIBANBU,DIYICISHIWOGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHIYOUFAKEYI,WEILIQINGZERENZHUTI、KAIZHANTURANGWURANFANGZHIGONGZUO,ZHASHITUIJIN“JINGTUBAOWEIZHAN”TIGONGLEFAZHIBAOZHANG。

TURANGWURANFANGZHIFAGUIDING,TUDIWURANZERENDECHENGDANZHESHITUDIWURANZERENRENHETUDISHIYONGQUANREN。JUTIBAOKUOTURANGWURANZHONGDIANJIANGUANDANWEI,CHAICHUSHESHI、SHEBEIHUOJIANZHUWU、GOUZHUWUDEQISHIYEDANWEI、ZHONGDIANJIANGUANDANWEI,WEIKUANGKUYUNYING、GUANLIDANWEI,DIFANGRENMINZHENGFUDENG13LEI。

“GUONEITURANGXIUFUXINGYEJINGLILECONGJINGJI、FALVZAIDAOZERENQUDONGDESANGEJIEDUAN。”BEIJINGJIANGONGXIUFUGONGSIZONGJINGLIGAOYANLIRENWEI,DIYIJIEDUAN,TURANGXIUFUDEGONGZUOHENDUOYOUDICHANKAIFAQIYEZHUDAO,XIUFUGONGZUODEKAIZHANDABUFENYOUJINGJIYINSUQUDONG;DIERJIEDUAN,TURANGWURANFANGZHIQIANGHUALEZHENGFU、WURANZHEDEZHILIZEREN,CUSHITURANGWURANFANGZHIZHUIZEZHUTIGENGJIAMINGQUE,“YIFAZHIWU”SHIFAZHANFANGXIANG;ERWEILAI,SUIZHESHEHUIGONGZHONGTURANGBAOHUZERENYISHIDERIYIZENGQIANGHEZHONGYANGHUANBAODUCHALIDUDEJIADA,ZERENQUDONGJIANGCHENGWEITURANGXIUFUGONGZUODEZHUYAODONGLI。

MUQIAN,TURANGXIUFULINGYUYIJINGXIYINSHEHUIZIBENDEJIJIJIERU。GENJUXINGYEJIGOUCESUAN,MUQIANWOGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHIXIUFUCHANYEZAIHUANBAOCHANYEZONGCHANZHIZHONGZHANBIBUZU1%。DANZAIOUMEIRIDENGFADAGUOJIA,ZHEIYIBIZHONGGAODA30%,ZHEIYEYIWEIZHE,WEILAIYIDUANSHIQINEIDETURANGXIUFUSHICHANGYOUKEGONGSHENWADEQIANLI。

CONGFAZHANMOSHIKAN,TURANGXIUFUXINGYECONGYICHUANTONGDEWURANZHILIGONGCHENGCHENGBAOWEIZHU,XIANGHUANJINGGUANJIA、ZONGDIKAIFAHEPPPDENGDUOYUANMOSHIFALI,HUANJINGDAJIANSHEGEJUZHENGZAIXINGCHENG。YENEIRENSHIZHICHU,ANZHAO“TUSHITIAO”ZHIDINGDEXIANLU,WOGUOTURANGWURANDEEHUAXINGSHIJIANGZAI2020NIANDEDAOYOUXIAOKONGZHI,SUIHOUJINRULIANGXINGFAZHANJIEDUAN。ZAITURANGWURANFANGZHIGONGZUOTUIJINDEGUOCHENGZHONG,TURANGXIUFUSHICHANGDEDAMENYEJIANGXIANGSHEHUIZIBENCHIXUCHANGKAI,YOUWANGKAIPICHUXINGYEFAZHANGENGWEIKEGUANDELANHAIKONGJIAN。

TURANGXIUFUDEZIJINTOURUJUDA,DONGZHEXUYAOSHANGQIANWANNAIZHISHANGYIYUANDEZIJINTOURU。MUQIAN,GUOJIAZIJINZHUYAOSHIYONGYUQIDONGLISHIYILIUTURANGDEZHILIHEXIUFUGONGZUO,YUQIDEZIJINTOURUJIANGYUANDAYUGUOJIADEQIDONGZIJIN。BUFENZHUANJIAJIANYI,JINKUAIJIANLIGUOJIAHEDIFANGTURANGXIUFUJIJINZHIDU,HUOZHETONGGUOJIADATOURUHEZHENGHEPEIYULONGTOUQIYE,CUSHIJISHUYINDAOXINGZHUANXIANGZIBENYUNZUOXING,BAOZHANGWOGUOTURANGXIUFUXINGYEKECHIXUFAZHAN。

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【关键词】土壤 重金属 镉 北纳生物 

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