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我国的土壤分类有哪些?

发布时间:2019-07-31 00:00 作者:北纳生物
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<土壤>

土壤是地球陆地的表面由矿物质、有机质、水、空气和生物组成的具有肥力的、能生长植物的未固定的结构层,我国土壤资源丰富、类型繁多、世界罕见,按土壤质地分类土壤一般分为砂质土、黏质土和壤土三大类,下面我们就一起来看一看我国的土壤分类有哪些吧!

砖红壤分布于海南岛、雷州半岛、西双版纳和台湾岛南部,大致位于北纬22°以南地区,热带季风气候,年平均气温为23~26℃,年平均降水量为1600~2000毫米,植被为热带季雨林。风化淋溶作用强烈,易溶性无机养分大量流失,铁、铝残留在土中,颜色发红。土层深厚,质地粘重,肥力差,呈酸性至强酸性。

赤红壤分布于滇南的大部、广西和广东的南部、福建的东南部以及台湾省的中南部,大致在北纬22°至25°之间,为砖红壤与红壤之间的过渡类型,南亚热带季风气候区。气温较砖红壤地区略低,年平均气温为21~22℃,年降水量在1200~2000毫米之间,植被为常绿阔叶林。风化淋溶作用略弱于砖红壤,颜色红。土层较厚,质地较粘重,肥力较差,呈酸性。

HONGRANGHEHUANGRANGFENBUYUZHANGJIANGYINANDEDABUFENDIQUYIJISICHUANPENDIZHOUWEIDESHANDI,ZHONGYAREDAIJIFENGQIHOUQU,QIHOUWENNUAN,YULIANGCHONGPEI,NIANPINGJUNQIWEN16~26℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG1500HAOMIZUOYOU,ZHIBEIWEIYAREDAICHANGLVKUOYELIN。HUANGRANGXINGCHENGDERELIANGTIAOJIANBIHONGRANGLVECHA,ERSHUISHITIAOJIANJIAOHAO。YOUJIZHILAIYUANFENGFU,DANFENJIEKUAI,LIUSHIDUO,GUTURANGZHONGFUZHIZHISHAO,TUXINGJIAOZHAN,YINLINRONGZUOYONGJIAOQIANG,GUJIA、NA、GAI、MEIJICUNSHAO,ERHANTIELVDUO,TUCHENGJUNYUNDEHONGSE。YINHUANGRANGZHONGDEYANGHUATIESHUIHUA,TUCENGCHENGHUANGSE。

HUANGZONGRANGFENBUBEIQIQINLING、HUAIHE,NANDAODABASHANHEZHANGJIANG,XIZIQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGNANBIANYUAN,DONGZHIZHANGJIANGXIAYOUDIDAI,SHIHUANGHONGRANGYUZONGRANGZHIJIANGUODUXINGTULEI,YAREDAIJIFENGQUBEIYUAN。XIAJIGAOWEN,DONGJIJIAOLENG,NIANPINGJUNQIWENWEI15~18℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANGWEI750~1000HAOMI。ZHIBEISHILUOYEKUOYELIN,DANZASHENGYOUCHANGLVKUOYESHUZHONG。JIJUYOUHUANGRANGYUHONGRANGFULVHUAZUOYONGDETEDIAN,YOUJUYOUZONGRANGZHANHUAZUOYONGDETEDIAN。CHENGRUOSUANXINGFANYING,ZIRANFEILIBIJIAOGAO。

棕壤分布于山东半岛和辽东半岛,暖温带半湿润气候,夏季暖热多雨,冬季寒冷干旱,年平均气温为5~14℃,年降水量约为500~1000厘米,植被为暖温带落叶阔叶林和针阔叶混交林。土壤中的粘化作用强烈,还产生较明显的淋溶作用,使钾、钠、钙、镁都被淋失,粘粒向下淀积。土层较厚,质地比较粘重,表层有机质含量较高,呈微酸性反应。
暗棕壤分布于东北地区大兴安岭东坡、小兴安岭、张广才岭和长白山等地,中温带湿润气候。年平均气温-1~5℃,冬季寒冷而漫长,年降水量600~1100毫米,是温带针阔叶混交林下形成的土壤。土壤呈酸性反应,它与棕壤比较,表层有较丰富的有机质,腐殖质的积累量多,是比较肥沃的森林土壤。

HANZONGRANGFENBUYUDAXINGANLINGBEIDUANSHANDISHANGBU,BEIMIANKUANNANMIANZHAI,HANWENDAISHIRUNQIHOU,NIANPINGJUNQIWENWEI-5℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG450~550HAOMI,ZHIBEIWEIYAHANDAIZHENYELIN。TURANGJINGPIAOHUIZUOYONG(YANGHUATIEBEIHAIYUANSUISHUILIUSHIDEPIAOXIZUOYONGHETIE、LVYANGHUAWUYUFUZHISUANXINGCHENGAOHEWUXIANGXIALINRONGBINGDIANJIDEHUIHUAZUOYONG),SUANXINGDA,TUCENGBO,YOUJIZHIFENJIEMAN,YOUXIAOYANGFENSHAO。

HETUFENBUYUSHANXI、HEBEI、LIAONINGSANSHENGLIANJIEDEQIULINGDISHANDIQUHESHANXIGUANZHONGPINGYUAN,NUANWENDAIBANSHIRUN、BANGANHANJIFENGQIHOU,NIANPINGJUNQIWEN11~14℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG500~700HAOMI,YIBANYISHANGDOUJIZHONGZAIXIAJI,DONGJIGANHAN,ZHIBEIYIZHONGSHENGHEHANSHENGSENLINGUANMUWEIZHU。LINRONGCHENGDUBUHENQIANGLIE,YOUSHAOLIANGTANSUANGAIDIANJI。TURANGCHENGZHONGXING、WEIJIANXINGFANYING,KUANGWUZHI、YOUJIZHIJILEIJIAODUO,FUZHIZHICENGJIAOHOU,FEILIJIAOGAO。

HEIGAITUFENBUYUDAXINGANLINGZHONGNANDUANSHANDIDEDONGXILIANGCE,DONGBEISONGNENPINGYUANDEZHONGBUHESONGHUAJIANG、LIAOHEDEFENSHUILINGDIQU,WENDAIBANSHIRUNDALUXINGQIHOU,NIANPINGJUNQIWEN-3~3℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG350~500HAOMI,ZHIBEIWEICHANCAOLIANGZUIGAODEWENDAICAOYUANHECAODIANCAOYUAN。FUZHIZHIHANLIANGZUIWEIFENGFU,FUZHIZHICENGHOUDUDA,TURANGYANSEYIHEISEWEIZHU,CHENGZHONGXINGZHIWEIJIANXINGFANYING,GAI、MEI、JIA、NADENGWUJIYANGFENYEJIAODUO,TURANGFEILIGAO。

LIGAITUFENBUYUNEIMENGGUGAOYUANDONGBUHEZHONGBUDEGUANGDACAOYUANDIQU,SHIGAICENGTUZHONGFENBUZUIGUANG,MIANJIZUIDADETULEI。WENDAIBANGANHANDALUXINGQIHOU。NIANPINGJUNQIWEN-2~6℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG250~350HAOMI。CAOCHANGWEIDIANXINGDEGANCAOYUAN,SHENGZHANGBURUHEIGAITUQUMAOMI。FUZHIZHIJILEICHENGDUBIHEIGAITURUOXIE,DANYEXIANGDANGFENGFU,HOUDUYEJIAODA,TURANGYANSEWEILISE。TUCENGCHENGRUOJIANXINGFANYING,JUBUDIQUYOUJIANHUAXIANXIANG。TURANGZHIDIYIXISHAHEFENSHAWEIZHU,QUNEISHAHUAXIANXIANGBIJIAOYANZHONG。

ZONGGAITUFENBUYUNEIMENGGUGAOYUANDEZHONGXIBU,EERDUOSIGAOYUAN,XINJIANGZHUNGAERPENDIDEBEIBU,TALIMUPENDIDEWAIYUAN,SHIGAICENGTUZHONGZUIGANHANBINGXIANGHUANGMODIDAIGUODUDEYIZHONGTURANG。QIHOUBILIGAITUDIQUGENGGAN,DALUXINGGENGQIANG。NIANPINGJUNQIWEN2~7℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG150~250HAOMI,MEIYOUGUANGAIJIUBUNENGZHONGZHIZHUANGJIA。ZHIBEIWEIHUANGMOCAOYUANHECAOYUANHUAHUANGMO。FUZHIZHIDEJILEIHEFUZHIZHICENGHOUDUSHIGAICENGTUZHONGZUISHAODE,TURANGYANSEYIZONGSEWEIZHU,TURANGCHENGJIANXINGFANYING,DIMIANPUBIANDUOLISHIHESHA,BINGZHUJIANXIANGHUANGMOTUGUODU。

HEILUTUFENBUYUSHANXIBEIBU、NINGXIANANBU、GANSUDONGBUDENGHUANGTUGAOYUANSHANGTURANGQINSHIJIAOQING,DIXINGJIAOPINGTANDEHUANGTUYUANQU。NUANWENDAIBANGANHAN、BANSHIRUNQIHOU。NIANPINGJUNQIWEN8~10℃,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG300~500HAOMI,YUHEIGAITUDIQUCHABUDUO,DANYOUYUQIWENJIAOGAO,XIANGDUISHIDUJIAOXIAO。YOUHUANGTUMUZHIXINGCHENG。ZHIBEIYULIGAITUDIQUXIANGSI。JUEDABUFENDOUYIBEIKAIKENWEINONGTIAN。FUZHIZHIDEJILEIHEYOUJIZHIHANLIANGBUGAO,FUZHIZHICENGDEYANSESHANGXIACHABIEBIJIAODA,SHANGBANDUANWEIHUANGZONGHUISE,XIABANDUANWEIHUIDAIHESE,HAOXIANGHEILUTUSHIBEIMAIZAIXIABIANDEGUTURANG。

HUANGMOTUFENBUYUNEIMENGGU、GANSUDEXIBU,XINJIANGDEDABU,QINGHAIDECHAIDAMUPENDIDENGDIQU,MIANJIHENDA,CHABUDUOYAOZHANQUANGUOZONGMIANJIDE1/5。WENDAIDALUXINGGANHANQIHOU。NIANJIANGSHUILIANGDABUFENDIQUBUDAO100HAOMI。ZHIBEIXISHAO,YIFEICHANGNAIHANDEROUZHIBANGUANMUWEIZHU。TURANGJIBENSHANGMEIYOUMINGXIANDEFUZHIZHICENG,TUZHISHUSONG,QUESHAOSHUIFEN,TURANGPOUMIANJIHUQUANSHISHALI,TANSUANGAIBIAOJU、SHIGAOHEYANFENJUJIDUO,TURANGFAYUCHENGDUCHA。

GAOSHANCAODIANTUFENBUYUQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGBUHEDONGNANBU,ZAIAERTAISHAN、ZHUNGAERPENDIYIXISHANDIHETIANSHANSHANMAI。QIHOUWENLIANGERJIAOSHIRUN,NIANPINGJUNQIWENZAI-2~1℃ZUOYOU,NIANJIANGSHUILIANG400HAOMIZUOYOU。GAOSHANCAODIANZHIBEI。POUMIANYOUCAOPICENG、FUZHIZHICENG、GUODUCENGHEMUZHICENGZUCHENG。TUCENGBO,TURANGDONGJIEQIZHANG,TONGQIBULIANG,TURANGCHENGZHONGXINGFANYING。

GAOSHANMOTUFENBUYUZANGBEIGAOYUANDEXIBEIBU、KUNLUNSHANMAIHEPAMIERGAOYUAN。QIHOUGANZAOERHANLENG,NIANPINGJUNQIWEN-10℃ZUOYOU,DONGJIZUIDIQIWENKEDA-40℃,NIANJIANGSHUIDIYU100HAOMI。ZHIBEIDEFUGAIDUBUZU10%。TUCENGBO,SHILIDUO,XITUSHAO,YOUJIZHIHANLIANGHENDI,TURANGFAYUCHENGDUCHA,JIANXINGFANYING

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